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CHAPTER 1

Verb Tenses
Exercise 1- Oral : Interview another student in the class. Take notes during the interview, and then interoduc this student to the rest of the class. Possible topics for the interview follow. As a class, discuss what questions you might ask to elicit this imformation.


1. name
2. spelling of name
3. country of origin
4. residence at present
5. length of time in ( this city of country ), both past and future
6. reason for coming here
7. field of study or work
8. spare-time activities and interests
9. general well –being and adjustment to living here
10. comments of living here

Exercise 2- Written: Write a short autoboigraphical paragraf telling who you are, what you have done in the past two years, and what your plans are for the next two years.

Exercise 3- Oral ( book closed): Ask a classmate a question using what + a form of do ( e.g., What are you doing? What did you do? What have you done?). Use the given time expressions.

Example: every morning
Student A: What do you do every morning?
Student B: I (go to classes/ eat breakfast/etc.) every morning

1-1 THE SIMPLE TENSES

TENSE EXAMPLES MEANING
SIMPLE PRESENT (a) It snows in Alaska
(b) It watch television every day In general, the simple present expresses events or situations that exist always, usually, habitually; they exist now, have existed in the past, and probably will exist in the future.
SIMPLE PAST (c) It snowed yesterday
(d) I wached television last night At one particular time in the past, this happened. It began and ended in the past.
SIMPLE FUTURE (e) It will snow tomorrow
(f) I will watch television tonight At one particular time in the future, this will happen.
1-2 THE PROGRESIVE TENSES

Form : be + ing (present participle)
Meaning: the progressiv tenses give the idea that an action is in progress during a particular time. The tenses say that an action begins before, is in progres during, and continues after another time or action.
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (a) He is sleeping right now He went to sleep at 10:00 tonigt. It is now 11:00 and he is still a sleep. His sleep began in the past. Is in progress at the present time, and probably will continue.
PAST PROGRESSIVE (b) He was sleeping when I Arrived
He went to sleep at 10.00 last night. I arrived at 11.00. He was still a sleep. His sleep began before and was in progress at a particular time in the past. It probably continued.
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE (c) He will be sleeping when we arrive He will go to sleep at 10.00 tomorrow to night. We will arrived at 11.00. the action of sleeping will begin before we arrived and it will be in progress at a particular time in the future. It probably continue.

1-3 THE PERFECT TENSES
Form : have + past participle
Meaning: The perfect tenses all give the idea that one thing happens before another time or event.
PRESENT PERFECT (a) I have already eaten I finished eating sometime before now, the exact time is not important.
PAST PERFECT (b) I had already eaten when they arrived First I finished eating. Later they arrived. My eating was completely finished before another time in the past.
FUTURE PERFECT (c) I will already have eaten when they arrived First I will finish eating. Laer they will arrive. My eating will be completely finished before another time in the future.
1-4 THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES

Form : have + been + -ing (present participle)
Meaning : The perfect progressive tenses give the edea that one is in prgoress immediately before, up to, untin another time or even. The tenses are uses to express the duration of the first event.
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE a) I have been studying for two hours. Eventt in progress: studying. When? Before now, up to now.
How long? For two hours.
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE b) I had been studying for to hours before my frien came. Eventt in progress: studying. When? Before another event in the past.
How long? For two hours
FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE c) I will have been studying for two hours by the time you arrived. Eventt in progress: studying. When? Before another event in the future.
How long? For two hours

1-5 SUMMARY CHART OF VERB TENSES

SIMPE PRESENT

The world is roound.
Is study every day
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

I am studying right now
SIMPLE PAST

I studied last night.
PAST PROGRESSIVE

I was studying when they came.
SIMPLE FUTURE

I wiil study tomorrow
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE

I will be studying when you come
PRESENT PERFECT

I have already studied Chapter One
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

I have been studying for two hours.
PAST PERFECT

I had already studied Chapter One before I began to study Chapter two
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

I had been studying for two housrs before my friend came
FUTURE PERFECT

I will a already studied Chapter Four I to study Chapter five. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

I will have been studying for two housr by the time you arrived.

1-6 SPELING OF-ING AND –ED FORMS

1) VERB THAT END IN-E a. hope hoping hoped
date dating dated
injure injuring injured -ING FROM: if word ends in-e, drop the enda add-ing.
-ED FROM: if the word ends in –e just add -d
2) VERB THAT END IN A VOWEL AND A CONSINANT ONE –SYLLABLE VERBS

b. stop stopping stopped
c. rain raining rained
1 vowel-2 consonants

2 vowel-1 consonant
ONE –SYLLABLE VERBS

d. listen listening listened
e. begin beginning began
1st syllable stressed-1 consnant
2 nd syllable stressed-2 consnants.
3). VERB THAT END IN TWO CONSINANTS f. strart starting strarted If the word ends in two consonants, just add the ending.
4) VERB THAT END IN-Y g. enjoy enjoying enjeyed
buy buying brought

h. study studying studied
try trying tried
reply replying replied If –y is preceded by a vowel , keep the –y

If –y is preceded by a consonant:
-ING FROM: keep the –y, add-ing
-ED FROM: change-y to-i, add-ed.
5) VERB THAT END IN-IE i. die dying died
lie lying lied
tie tying tied -ING FROM: change-ie to –y, add –ing
-ED FROM: add -d

1-7 SIMPE PRESENT

a. Water consists of hydogen an oxygen.
b. Most animals kill only for food
c. The world is round. The simple presen says that something was true in the past, is true in the present, and will be true in the future. It is used for general statements of fact.
d. I study for two hours every night
e. My classes begin at nine
f. He always eats a sandwich for lunch The simle present is used to express habitual or everyday activity
g. I have only dollar right now
h. I don’t recognize that man
i. He needs a pen right now. Certain verb are not used in the progressive tenses. (see Chatr 1-9). With these verb, the simple presen may indicate a situation that moment of specking.
1-8 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

J. John in sleeping right now
k. I need an umbrella because it is raining.
l. john an Mary are talking on the phone The presen progressive expresses an activity that is in progres at the moment of speaking. It began in the recent past, is continuing at presen, and will probably end at some point in the future
m. I am talking five courses this semester.
n. John is trying to impove his work habits
o. She is writing another book this year. Often the activity is of a general nature: something generally in progres this week, this month, this year.
Note: the sentece means that writing a book is a general activity she is a engaged in at presen, but it does not mean that at the moment og speacking she is sitting at her desk with pen in hand.

1-9 NONPROGRESSIVE VERB

NONPROGRESSIVE

a. Ali knows this grammar Some verb are nonprogressive:they are not used in any of the progressive tenses. These verb describe states (i.e., conditions that exsist); they do not describe activites that are in progres. In (a) : “Ali Know” describe a mental state that exists.
PROGRESSIVE

b. Krim is reading about this grammar COMARE: in (b) :”Krim is reading” is an activity in progress. Progressive tenses can be ussed with the verb read but not with the verb know.

COMMONNONPROGRESSIVE VERBS
1. MENTAL STATE know believe imagine want
Realize feel doubt need
Understand suppose remember prefer
Recognze think forget mean
2. EMOTIONAL love hate fear mind
STATE like dislike envy care
appeciatte
3. POSSESSION possess have own belong
4. SENSE taste hear see
PERCEPTION smeel feel
5. OTHER seem cost be consist of
EXISTING look owe exsist contain
STATES appear weigh include

1-10 USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE WITH ALWAYS

a. Mary always leaved for school at 7-45 In sentences referring to present time, usually the simple present is used with always to describe habitual oor everyday activities, as in (a).
b. Mary is alwais leaving her dirty scoks on the floor for me to pick up! Who does she think I am? Her maid?

c. I am always/forever/constantly picking uap Mary’s dirty socks! In special circumstances, a speaker may use the present progressive with always to comlain, i.e,to express annoyance or anger, as in (b)

In addition to always, the words forrever and constant are used with the present progressive to express annoyance.

1-11 REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERB

REGULAR VERB

SIMPLE
FROM

Hope
Stop
Listen
Study
start

SIMPE PAST

Hoped
Stopped
Listened
Studied
started

PAST PARTICIPLE

Hoped
Stopped
Listened
Studied
started

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

Hoping
Stopping
Listening
Studying
starting

English verb have four principal part:
1. simple form
2. simple past
3. past participle
4. present participle
IRREGLAR VERB

SIMPLE
FROM

Break
Come
Find
Hit
Swim

SIMPE PAST

Broke
Came
Found
Hit
swam

PAST PARTICIPLE

Broken
Come
Found
Hit
swam

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

Breaking
Coming
Finding
Hitting
swiming
Some verbs have irregular past forms. Most of the irregulalr verb in English are fiven in the following alphabetical list.

TRANSITIVE
(followed by an object) INTRANSITIVE
(not followed by an object)
a. raise, raised, raised
Tom raised hid head b. rise, rose, risen
The sun rises in the east
c. set, set, set
I will set the book on the desk d. sit, sat, sat
I sit in the front row
e. lay, laid, laid
I am laying the book on the desk f. lie, lay, lain
He is lying on his bed
h. hang, hanged, hanged
They hanged the criminal by the neek until he was dead.

1-12 SIMPLE PAST
a. I walked to school yesterday
b. He lived in Paris for ten years, bat now he is living in Rome.
c. I bought a new ca the days ago The simle past indicatets that an activity or situation began an ended at a particular time in the past
d. I stood under a tre when it began to rain.
e. When she heard a trange noise, she got up to investigate.
f. When I dropped my cup, the coffe spilled on my lap If a sentence contains when and has the simple past in both clauses, the action in the “when clause” happens first. In (d): lst: the rain began 2nd: I stood under a tree.

1-13 PAST PROGRESSIVE
g. I was walking down the street when it began to rain.
h. While I was walking down the street, it began to rain
i. I was standing under a tree when it began to rain.
j. At eight o’clock last night, ia was studying.
k. last year at this time, I was attending scholl. In (g): lst: I was walking down the street.
2nd:it began to rain.
In other words, both action occurred at the sametime, but one action beganearlier and was in progress when the other action occurred.
In (J): My studying began before 8:00, was in progress at the time, and probably continued.
l. While I was studying in one room of our apartement, my roommate was having a party in the other room. Sometimes the past progressive is uses in both parts of a sentence when two action are in progress simultaneously.
m. It rained this mornning
n. It was raining this morning In some cases, the simple past and the past progressive give almost the same meaning, as in (m) and (n).

1-14 USING EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE WITH PROGRESSIVE TENSES

a. Kay is studying in her room
b. Kay is her room studying
c. Jack was in bed reading a book when I came. An expression of place can sometimes come between the auxiliary be and the –ing verb in a progressive tense, as in (b) and (c).

1-15 PRESENT PERPECT

a. They have moved into a new apartment.
b. Have you ever visited Mexico
c. I have already seen that movie
d. I have never seen snow. The present perfect expresses the idea that some thing happened (or never happened) before now, at an unspecified time in the past.
The exact time itu happened is not important.
If there is a specific mention of time, the simple past is used:
I saw that mevie last night.
e. We have had four tests so far this semester.
f. I have written my wife a letter every other day for the last two seeks.
g. I have met many people since I came here in June
h. I have flown on an airplane many times. The present perfect also expresses the repetition of an activity before now. The exact time of each repetition is not important.
i. I have been here since seven o’clock.
j. We have been here for two weeks
k. I have had this same pair of shoes for three years.
l. I have liked cowboy movies ever since I was a child.
m. I have known him for many years. The pesent perfect also when used wit for or since, epresses a situation that began in the past and contiues to the present.
In the examples, notice the difference between sence and for:
Since + a particular time
For + a duration of time

1-16 PRESENT PERPECT PROGRESSIVE

Right now I am sitting at my desk.
a. I have been sitting here since seven a’clock.
b. I have been sitting here for two hours.
c. You have been studying for five straight hours. Why don’t you take a break?
d. It has been raining all day. It is still raining right now. This tense is uses to indicate the duration of an activity that began in the past and conditinues to the present. When the tense has this meaning, it is uses with time words such as for, since, all morning, all day all week.
e. I have been thinking about chnging ma major
f. All of the students have been studying hard. Final exams start next week.
g. My bac hurts, so I have been sleping on the flor lately. The bed is too soft. When the tense is used without any specific mention of time, it expresses a generral activity in progress resently, lately.
h. I have lived here since 1985.
I have been living here since 1985
i. He has been working at the same store for ten years With certain verb (most notably live, work, teach), there is little or no difference in meaning between the two tenses when since or for is used.

1-17 PAST PERPECT

a. My parents had already eaten by the time I got home.
b. Until yesterday, I had never head about it.
c. The thief simply walked in someone had forgotten to lock the door. The past perfect expresses an activity that was completet before another activity or time in the past.
d. Sam had already left when we got there.
e. Sam had left before we got there.
f. Sam left before we got there
g. After the guests had left, I went to bed.
h. After the guests left, I went to bed. In (d): first: Sam left.
Second:we got there
If either before or after is uses in the sentence, the past perfect is often not necessary because the time relationship is already clear. The simple past may be uses, as in (f) and (h). note: (e) an (g) and (h) have the same mean ing.

1-18 PAST PERPECT PROGRESSIVE

i. The police had been looding for the criminal for two years before they caught him
j. The patient had been witing in the emergency room for almost an hour before a doctor finally treated her
k. He finally came at six o’clock. I had been waiting for him since four trirty. The past perfect progressive emphasizes the duration of an activity that was in progress before another activity or time in the past.
l. When Judy got heme, her hair was still wet because she had been swimming.
m. Her eyes wer red because she had been crying. This tense also may express an activity in progress recent to another time or activity in the past.

1-19 SIMPLE FUTURE/BE GOING TO

a. He will finish his work tomorrow.
b. He is going to finish his work tomorow Wiil or be going to is used express future time.
In speech, going to is often pronounced ”gonna”

1-20 WILL VERSUS BE GOING TO

To express a PREDICTION- either WILL or BE GOING TO is used:

a. Accoording to the weather report, it will be cloudy tomorrow.
b. Accoording to the weather report, it is going to be cloudy tomorrow
c. Be careful! ‘ll hurt yourself!
d. Watch out! You‘re going to hurt yourself! When the speaker is making a prediction (a) statement about something s/he thinks will be true or will occur in the future), either will or be going to is possible.
There is no difference in meaning between (a) and (b).
There is no difference in meaning between (c) and (d).

To express a PRIOR PLAN- only BE GOING TO is used:
e. A: Why did you buy this paint?
B: I’m going to paint my bedroom tomorrow.

f. I talked to Bob yesterday. He is tered of taking the bus to work. He’s going to buy a car. That’s what he told me.
When the speaker is expressing a prior plan (something the speaker intends to do in the future because in the past s/he has made a plan or decesion to do it), only be going to is used.
In (e): speaker B has made a prior plan. She decided to paint her bedroom las week. She intends to paint her bedroom tomorrow.
In (f): the speaker knows Bob’s intention to buy a car. Bob made the decision in the past an he intends to act on decision in the future. Will is not approriate in (e) and (f).

To express a WILLINGNESS- only WILL is used:
g. A: The phone’s ringring
B: I’ll get it

h. A: I don’t understand this prooblem.
B: Ask your teacher about it. She’ll help you. In (g): Speaker B is saying:”I am willing, I am happy to get the phone.” He is not making a prediction. He has made no prior plan to answer the phone. He is, inteads, volunteering to answer the phone and uses will to show his willingness.
In (h): Speaker B feel sure about the teacher’s sillingness to help
Be going to is not appropriate in (g) and (h).

1-21 EXPRESSING THE FUTURE IN TIME CLAUSES

a. Bob will come son. When Bob comes, we eill see him
b. Linda is going to leave soon. Before she leaves, she is going to finish her work.
c. I will get home at 5:30. after I get home, I will eat dinner.
d. The taxi will arrive soon. As soon as it arrives, we’ll be able to leave for the airfort.
e. They are going to come soon. I’ll wait here until they come. In (a) :”When Bob comes”is a time clause
When + subjec + verb= a time clause
Wiil or be going to is not used in a time clause. The meaning or the clause is future, but the simple present tense is used.
A time clauses begins with such word as when, before, after, as soon as, until and includes a subject and a verb. The time claused can come either at the begiining of the sentence or in the second part of the sentence.
When he comes, we’ll see him
Or:
We’ll se him when he comes
f. I will go to bed after I finish my wok
g. I will go to bed after I haave finished my work. Occasionally, the present prefect is used in a time clause, as in (g). examples (f) and (g) have the same meaning. The present perfect stresses the completion of the act in the time clause before the other act occurs in the future.

1-22 USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIF AND THE SIMPLE PRESENT TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME

PRESENT PROGRESSIF
a. My wife has an appointmen with a doctor. She is seeing Dr. Nort nekt Tuesday.
b. Sam has already made his plans. He is leaving at noon tomorrow.
c. A: What are you going to do this afternoon?
B: After lunch I am meeting a friend mine. We are going shopping. Would yu like to come along?
The presen progressive may be used to express future time when the idea of the sentence concerns a planned event or definite intention. (COMPARE: A verb such as rain is not used in the present progessive to indicate future time because rain is not a planned event
A future meaning for the present progressive tense is indicated either by future time word in the setence or by the context.
SIMPLE PRESENT
a. The museum opens at ten tomorrow morning.
b. Classes begin next week.
c. John’s plane arrives at 6:05 p.m next Monday. The simple present can also be used to express future time in sentences that concern events that are on a difinite schedule or timetable. These sentences usually contain future time words. Only a few verbs are uses in this way e.g , open, close, begin, end start, finish, arrive, leave, come, return.

1-23 FUTURE PROGRESSIF

a. I will begin to study at seven.
You will come at eight.
I will be studying when you come.
b. Right now I am sitting in class
at this same time tomorrow.
I will be sitting in class The future progressive expresses an activity that will be in progress at a time in the future.
c. Don’t call me at nine becauuse I won’t be come home. I am going to be studying at the library. The progressive form of be going to:
Be going to + be+ -ing
d. Don’t get imatient. She will be coming soon.
e. Don’t get impatient. She will come soon Sometimes there is little or no difference between the future progressive and the simple future, especially when the future event will occur at an indefinite time in the future, as in (d) and (e).

1-24 FUTURE PERFECT

a. I will graduate in June. I will see you in July. By the next time I see you, I will have graduattet.
b. I will have finished my homwork by the time I go out on a date tonight. The future perfect expresses an activity that will be complated before another time or event in the future.
(notice in the examples: by the time introduces a time clause: the simple present is uses in a time clause.)

1-25 FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIF

c. I will go to bed at ten P.M
he will get home at midnight. At midnight I will be sleeping. I will have been sleeping for two hours by the time he gets home. The future prefect progressiv emphasizes the duration of an actiivity that will be in progress before another time or event in the future.
d. When Professor Jones retires next month, he will have taught for 45 years.
e. When Professor Jones retire next month, he will have been teaching for 45 years. Sometimes the future perfect and the future perfect progressive give te same meaning, as in (d) dan (e). also, notice that the activity expresses by either of these two tenses may begin in the past.

CHAPTHER 2
MODAL AUXILIARIES AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS

2-1 INTRODUCTION

The modal auxiliaries in English are: can, could, had beter, many, migh, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would.
Modal auxiliaries generally express a speaker’s attitudes, or, “Moods.” For example, or probbable, and express that a speaker feels something is necessary, advisable, permissible, possible, or probable, and in addition, they can convey the strength of these attitudes.
Each modal has more than one meaning or use. (see chart 2-23)
a. Modal Auxiliaries
I can do it
We could do it
You had better do it
They + may do it
He might do it
She must do it
It. Ought to do it
Shall do it
Should do it
Will do it
Would do it

Modals do not take a final –s, even when the subject is he, she, or it.
CORRECT : he can do it
INCORRECT: he cans do it
Modal are followed immediately by the simple form of a verb.
CORRECT : he can do it
INCORRECT: he cans to do it/ he can does it/ he ca did it.
The only exception is ought, wich is followed by an infinitive (to the simple form a verb).
CORRECT: she ought to go to the meeting.
b. Similar expressions
Be able to do it
Be going to do it
Be supposed to do it
Be to do it
Have to do it
Have got to do it
Uses to do it In (b) is a list of some common expressions whose meaning are similar to those of some of the modal auxuliaries. For example able to is similar to can; be going to is similar to will.
An infinitive (to +the simple form of a verb) is used in these similar expressions.

CHAPTHER 3
THE PASSIVE

3-1 FORMING THE PASIVE

s v o
ACTIVE : a) Mary helped the boy

s v
PASSIVE: b) The boy was helped by Mary. Form of the passive be + past participle.
In the passive, the object of an active verb because the subject of the passive verb:”the boy” in (a) becomes the subject of the passive verb in (b). (a) and (b) have the same meaning.
ACTIVE : c) an accident heppened
PASSIVE: d) (none) Only transitive verb (verb that are followed by an object) are used in the passive. It is not possible to use verbs such as happen, sleep, come, and seem (intransitive verbs) in the passive. (see appendik 1, chart A-1)
ACTIVE PASSIVE
Simple present Mary helps john. John is helped by Mary
Present progressive Mary is helping John. John is being helped by Mary
Present perfect Mary has helped John. John has been helped by Mary
Simple past Mary helped John. John was helped by Mary
Past perfect Mary was helping John. John was being helped by Mary
Past progressive Mary had helped John. John had been helped by Mary
Simple future Mary will helped John. John will be helped by Mary
Be boing to Mary is going to help John. John is going to be helped by Mary
Future perfect Mary will have helped John. John will have been helped by Mary

CHAPTHER 4
GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

4-1 GERUNDS: INTRODUCTION

S v
a) Playing tennis is fun

s v o
b) We enjoy playing tennis

prep o
c) He,s excited about pleying tennis A gerund is the-ing form of verb used as a noun. Agerund is used in the same ways as a noun, i,e, as a subject or an object.
In (a): playing is a gerund. It is used as the subject of the sentence. Playing tennis is a gerund phase.
In (b): playing is uses as the object of the verb enjoy.
In ©: playing is uses as the object of the preposition about..
COMPARE the uses of the –ing form of verbs:
1. Walking is good exercise.- walking= a gerund, uses as the subject of the sentences.
2. Bob and Ann are playing tennis. –playing = a present participle, uses in the present progressive tense.
3. I heard some suprising news.-surprising= a present participle, uses as an adjective.

CHAPTHER 5
SINGULAR AND PRURAL

5-1 FINAL-S/ES
a. Noun+-s: Friends are important.
Noun+-es: I like my classes. A final –s or –es is added to a noun to make a noun plural.
Friend= a singular noun friens = a plural noun.
b. Verb + -s: John work at the bank.
Verb + es: She watches birds. A final –s or –es added to a simple present verb when the subject is a singular noun or third person singular pronoun.
John works= singular the students work = plural
He works= singular they work=plural
SPELLING: FINAL-S/ES
c. sing – sings
song – songs For most words (whether a verb or a noun, simple a final –s is added to spell the work correctly.
d. wash – washes
watch – wathes
class – classes
buzz- buzzes
box – boxes Final –s is added to words that end in –sh, -ch, -s, -s, -z, and –x.
e. toy – toys
buy- buys
f. baby- bebies
cry- cries. For words that end in-y
In (e): if –y is preceded by a vowel, only –s is added.
In (f): if-y is preceded by a consonant, the –y is changed to –i and –es is added.

5-2
The nous in (a) have erregular plural form
a. man-men
woman-women

Child-children
Ox-oxen

Mouse-mice
Louse-lice
Foot-feet
Goose-geese
Tooth-teeth
Some noun that end in –o add –es to form the plural
b. ochoes
some noun that end in-o add only –s to form the plural.
c. autos
kilos
memos
some nouns that end in –o add either –es or –s t form the plural:
d. mosquitoes/mosquitos
e. tornadoes/tornados

Heroes

Photos
Pianos
radios

Potatoes

Solos
Sopranos
Studios

Volcanoes/volcanos
Zeroes/zeros

Tomatoes

Tatoos
Videos
zooz
some nouns that end in—f or –fe are changed to –ves in the plural:
e. calf-calves
half-halves
knife-knives
some nouns that end in-f simply add –s to form the plural:
f. belief-beliefs

Leaf-leaves
Life-lives
Loaf-loaves

Chief-chiefs

Self-selves
Shelf-shelves
Thief-thieves

Cliff-cliffs

Wolf-wolves
Scarf-scarves/ scarfs

Roof-roofs.
Some none have the same singular and plural form other languages have foreign plural:
g. deer fish means series sheep species
Some nouns that English has borrosed from other lenguages have foreign plural:
h. criterion-criteria
phenomenon-phenomena
h. cactus-cacti/cactuses
stimulus-stimuli
syllabus-syllabi/syllabuses

i. formula-formulae/formulas
vetebra-vetebrae

k.analysis-analyses
basis-bases
crisis-crises
hypothesis-hypotheses
oasis-oases
parenthesis-parentheses
thesis-theses
l. appendix-appendices/xes
index-indices/indixes

n. bacterium-bacteria
curriculum- curricula
datum-data
medium-media
memorandum-memoranda.

CHAPTHER 6
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

6-1 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES: INTRODUCTION
Term: clause:

Independent clause:

Dependen clause:

Adjective clause: A clause is group of words containing a subject and a verb.
An independent clause is a complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of a sentence. (it is also called a main clause)
A dependen clause is not a complete sencence. It must be connected to an independent clause.
A adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It describe, indentifies, or gives further information about a noun. (an adjective clause is also called a relatife clause).

CHAPTHER 7
NOUN CLAUSES

7-1 NOUN CLAUSES: INTRODUCTION

A noun is uses a subject or an object
A noun clause is used as a subject or an object. In other word, a noun clauses is uses in the same ways as a noun.
a. His story was interesting
b. What he said was interesting. In (a): story is a noun. It is uses as the subject of the setences.
In (b): shat he said is a noun clause. It is uses as the subject of the sentences. The noun clause has its own subject (he) and verb (said).
c. I heard his story.
d. I heard what he said. In (c): story is a noun. It is used as the object of the verb heard.
In (d): what he said is noun clause. It is uses as the object og the verb heard.
Words uses to introduce noun clauses
1. question word 2. whether if 3 that.
When who
Where whom
Why what
How which
whose

CHAPTHER 8
SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN IDEALS-PART I

8-1 PARALEL STRUKTURE

One use of a conjunction is to connect word or pharases that have the same grammatical function in a setence. This use or conjnctions is called parallel struture the conjunctions uses in this pattern are: and, but, or, nor.
a. Steve and his friend are coming to dinner.
b. Susan raised her hand and snapped her fingers.
c. He is waving his arms and (is) shouting at us.
d. These shoes are old but comfortable.
e. He wants to watch TV or (to) listen to some music. In (a) : noun + and + noun
In (b) : verb + and + verb

In © : verb + and + verb (the second auxiliary may be omittet if it is the same as the first auxiliary.)
In (d) : adjektive +but+adjective.
In (e): infinitive+or+infinitive (the second to may be omitted.)
f. Steve, Joe, and Alice are coming to dinner.
g. Susan raised her hand, snapped her fingers, and asked a question.
h. The colors in that fabric are red, gold, black, and green. A parallel structure may contain more than two part. N a series, commas are used to separate each unit. The final comma that precedes the conjunction is optinal but is customarily used. (no commas are used if there are only two parts to a parallel structure

CHAPTHER 9
SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN IDEALS-PART II

9-1 EXPRESSING UNEXPECTED RESULT
USING EVEN THOUGH

a. Because the weather was cold, I didn’t go swimming.
b. Even though the weather was cold, I went swimming.
c. Because I wasn’t tired, I didn’t go to bed.
d. Even though I wasn’t tired, I went to bed. Because is used to express espected results

Even though is used to expected results.
Like because, even though introduces an adverb clause

CHAPTHER 10
CONDITIONAL SETENCES

10-1 SUMMRY OF BASIC VERB FORM USAGE IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

MEANING OF THE “IF CLAUSE” VERB FORM IN THE “IF CLAUSE” VERB FRM IN THE “RESULT CLAUSE” a) If I have enough time, I write to my parents every week.
b) If I have enoug time tomorrow. I will write to my parents.
True in the presen/future Simple present Simple present
Simple future
Untrue in the present/ future Simple past Would+simple form c) if I had enough time now, I would write to my parents. (in truth, I do not have enough time, so I will not write to them.)
Untrue in the past Past perfect Would have+ past participle d) if I had had enough time, I would have written to my parents yesterday. (in truth, I did not have eenough time, so I did not write to them).

10-2 TRUE IN THE PRESENT OR FUTURE

e. If I don’t eat breakfast, I always get hungry during class.
f. Water freezes (will freeze) if the temperature goes below 32F/ 0C.

g. If I don’t eat breakfast tomorrow morning, I will get hungry during class.
h. If the weather is nice tomorrow, we sill go on a picnic.
In (e): the simple present is uses in the result clause to exppress a habitual activity or situation.
In (f): either the simple present or the simple future is uses in the result clause to established, precictable fact.
In (g) and (h): the simple future is used in the fesult clause when the sentences concerns a particular activity or situation in the future.
Note: the simple present, not the simple future, is uses in the “if clause”.

10-3 UNTURE (CONTARY TO FACT) IN THE PRESENT/FUTURE

(i) If I thought this class, I wouldn’t give tests.
(j) If I here right now, he would help us.
(k) If I were you, I would accept their invitation. In (i): in truth, I don’t teach this class.
In (j): In truth, he is not here right now.
In (k): in truth, I an not you.
Note: Were is uses for both singular and plural.
Subjects, Was (wis I, he, she, it) is sometimes uses in very informal speech but is not generally considered grammatically acceptable.

10-4 UNTURE (CONTARY TO FACT) IN THE PAST

(k) If you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you.
(l) If they had studied, they would have passed the exam.
(m) If I hadn’t slipped on the ice, I wouldn’ heve broken my arm. In (l): in truth, you did not tell me about it.
In (m): in truth, they did not study. They failed the exam.
In (n): in truth, I slipped on the ice. I broke my arm.
Note: the auxiliary verbs are almost always contracted in speech “If you’d told me, I would’ve helped you (or I’d’ve helped you)”.

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